|Fra TV 2 ØST-udsendelsen 'Mit kæreste eje'|
Anna Deplano. Rundt sofabord model Giro
Christian Dell. Kaiser bordlampe, model 6781
Christian Dell. Kaiser bordlampe model 6751
Christian Dell var en tysk designer med en spændende baggrund som sølvsmed, hvilket er med til at forklare den sans for detaljer der findes i hans arbejde. Han arbejdede som formand på Bauhaus’ metalværksted i Weimar, fra 1922 til og med 1925, her var Dell bagmand for en meget innovativ og banebrydende designstil.Bauhaus stilen indtager sin helt egen plads i det 20. århundredes kulturhistorie, og den omfattede arkitektur, design, kunst og de nye medier. Bauhaus var en af de første læreanstalter inden for design og førte adskillige af de mest fremragende af tidens arkitekter og kunstnere sammen.I tiden efter metalværkstedet fra 1926 tegnede Dell lyskilder, ofte for lampefabrikken Gebr. Kaiser & Co. Bordlampemodellen 6631 Luxus blev vist for første gang i 1936, i det første katalog der udkom i dette år. Denne lampe blev meget hurtigt uden sammenligning den førende model i KAISER idell™-serien, som både dengang og selv den dag i dag står som symbolet på det fornemste inden for tysk design, krydret på eleganteste vis med et udsøgt materialevalg og præcisionsteknik.For de nysgerige kan det oplyses at den første del af navnet “Kaiser” henviser til den oprindelige fabrikant af lampen, og “idell” henviser til idé og til Dell som jo er designerens efternavn. “Kaiser” henviser til den oprindelige fabrikant – KAISER & Co.
Using a novel reaction time task, we found that participants took consistently longer to choose aesthetic products than standardized ones (experiments 1a and 1b); that unknown brands with aesthetic packaging are chosen even over wellknown brands with standardized packaging, despite higher prices (experiment 2); and that increased activation in the reward system helps explain these behavioral differences (experiment 3). Together, these results show why and how the choice of frequently purchased goods is influenced by aesthetic package design.
Beauty Is in the Brain of the Beholder
Zeki found, by examining MRI images of his subjects’ brains, that when people look at something they find beautiful, a portion in the front part of the brain called the medial orbito-frontal cortex “lights up.” That is, there’s increased blood flow in this area. He believes it’s a near-universal response to beauty. Zeki added that the medial orbito-frontal cortex is a portion of the brain associated with pleasure, and also reward.- It really tells you seeking beauty is in fact seeking to reward your pleasure centers.
Seeking to reward them with the neurotransmitter dopamine, also known as the feel-good chemical of the brain. Zeki added that one thing that’s novel about his study – and a result he wasn’t expecting – is that beauty as perceived through the eyes (e.g., visual art), and beauty you receive through the ears (e.g., music) aren’t routed to different parts of the brain; they both “reward” the same spot. Not only that, he said, the degree of activity in the medial orbito-frontal cortex correlates very strongly to the degree to which you find a thing attractive. He explained:
- The extent of activity in the medial frontal cortex is directly proportional to the declared intensity of beauty. So if you experience something as very beautiful on a scale of 1 to 10 and you give it a 10, then the activity is going to be stronger than if you experience it as a 1 out of 10.
By contrast, Zeki said, he found that when people see something that’s aesthetically displeasing – something they find ugly – it lights up a completely different part of the brain.
Activity in another region, the caudate nucleus, located near the center of the brain, increased in proportion to the relative visual beauty of a painting. The region has been previously reported to correlate with romantic love, suggesting a neural association for the relationship between beauty and love.
The default network is an interconnected and anatomically defined brain system that preferentially activates when individuals engage in internal tasks such as daydreaming, envisioning the future, retrieving memories, and gauging others' perspectives. It is negatively correlated with brain systems that focus on external visual signals. Its subsystems include part of the medial temporal lobe for memory, part of the medial prefrontal cortex for theory of mind, and the posterior cingulate cortex for integration, along with the adjacent ventral precuneus and the medial, lateral and inferior parietal cortex.
“We wanted to go beyond that (i.e. Zeki) and try to understand a bit more about what is an esthetic experience,” Vessel continues. “We wanted to know what the role of emotions is, and our thought is that you can have an esthetic experience that isn’t just positive. For instance, you can look at Picasso’s Blue Period paintings and realize these are very sad, somber scenes, and yet you can report having a strong esthetic response to subjects that are not what we would consider positive.”
“Your job is to give your gut–level response based on how much you find the painting beautiful, compelling or powerful. Note that the paintings may cover the entire range from ‘beautiful’ to ‘strange’ to even ‘ugly.’ Respond on the basis of how much this image ‘moves’ you.”
Vessel’s experiment entailed complicated tracking processes that monitored regions of the brain such as the left caudate and left collateral sulcus. It seemed to demonstrate that certain parts of the subjects’ brains showed greater activity—and those parts seem to be closely related to what scientists refer to as the “default–mode network”—areas reserved for internal monitoring. “That’s the place your brain goes to,” he says, “when you’re in your own world. Vessel thinks he may be seeing evidence of “the fact that external objects can grab us so strongly that they engage our internal thought processes in what we call an ‘esthetic reaction.’”
|Arne Jacoben. Rørstolen AJ 236|