The physical world is utterly different from the mental world. We have didirect contact with the physical world through our senses. But the mental world is private to each on of us.
Through these two illusions we experience ourselves as agents, acting independently upon the world. But, at the same time, we can share our experiences of the world. Over the millennia this ability to share experience has created human culture that has, in its turn, modified the function of the human brain.
In this chapter I have shown how our brain discover what is out there in the world by constructing models and making predictions. Our models are built by combining information from our senses with our prior expectations. Both sensations and expectations are essential for this process. We are not aware of all the work our brian is doing. We are only aware of the models that result form the work. This makes our experience of the world seem effortless and direct.
I acquire my knowledge of the mental world - the minds of others - in the same way. However it may seem to me, my contact with the mental world (=the mind of others) is neither more or less direct than my contact with the physical world. Using cues acquiered from my senses and prior knowledge acquiered from my experience, my breain creates models of the mnds of others.
Theory of mind is a theory insofar as the mind is not directly observable. The presumption that others have a mind is termed a theory of mind because each human can only intuit the existence of his or her own mind through introspection, and no one has direct access to the mind of another. It is typically assumed that others have minds by analogy with one's own, and based on the reciprocal nature of social interaction, as observed in joint attention, the functional use of language, and understanding of others' emotions and actions. Having a theory of mind allows one to attribute thoughts, desires, and intentions to others, to predict or explain their actions, and to posit their intentions. As originally defined, it enables one to understand that mental states can be the cause of—and thus be used to explain and predict—others’ behavior. Being able to attribute mental states to others and understanding them as causes of behavior implies, in part, that one must be able to conceive of the mind as a “generator of representations”.  If a person does not have a complete theory of mind it may be a sign of cognitive or developmental impairment.Theory of mind appears to be an innate potential ability in humans, but one requiring social and other experience over many years to bring to fruition. Different people may develop more, or less, effective theories of mind. Empathy is a related concept, meaning experientially recognizing and understanding the states of mind, including beliefs, desires and particularly emotions of others, often characterized as the ability to "put oneself into another's shoes." Recent neuro ethological studies of animal behaviour, suggest even rodents may exhibit ethical or empathic abilities. Neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development maintain that theory of mind is a byproduct of a broader hypercognitive ability of the human mind to register, monitor, and represent its own functioning.
At the end of this book we have discovered that mind reading is possible for all of us. It is possible because our creative brains will use any and alle signals available to make models of what is out there ind the physical world and also what is out there in the minds of others. Our creative brain use these models to predict what will happen next when we act upon the world and when w interact with others. If our predictions about the other people are right, the we have sucessfullly read their minds. But all this complex activity is hidden from us.