A form constant is one of several geometric patterns which are recurringly observed during hallucinations and altered states of consciousness.In 1926, Heinrich Klüver systematically studied the effects of mescaline (peyote) on the subjective experiences of its users. In addition to producing hallucinations characterized by bright, "highly saturated" colors and vivid imagery, Klüver noticed that mescaline produced recurring geometric patterns in different users. He called these patterns 'form constants' and categorized four types: lattices (including honeycombs, checkerboards, and triangles), cobwebs, tunnels, and spirals.
A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception. Hallucinations are vivid, substantial, and are perceived to be located in external objective space.They are distinguishable from these related phenomena: dreaming, which does not involve wakefulness; illusion, which involves distorted or misinterpreted real perception; imagery, which does not mimic real perception and is under voluntary control; and pseudohallucination, which does not mimic real perception, but is not under voluntary control.Hallucinations also differ from "delusional perceptions", in which a correctly sensed and interpreted stimulus (i.e., a real perception) is given some additional (and typically absurd) significance.
The term "altered state of consciousness" was introduced and defined by Ludwig in 1966. An altered state of consciousness is any mental state induced by physiological, psychological, or pharmacological maneuvers or agents, which deviates from the normal waking state of consciousness.Some observable abnormal and sluggish behaviors meet the criteria for altered state of consciousness. Altered states of consciousness can also be associated with artistic creativity or different focus levels. They also can be shared interpersonally and studied as a subject of sociological research.
Adolf Wölfli, born in Bowil (Switzerland) in 1864, had a rough childhood: his father, a stone sculptor who drank away all of his paychecks, abandoned his family in 1872.Adolf and his mother were sent to farms as laborers, but she died shortly thereafter. From then on, the young boy wandered from family to family, sometimes being treated harshly yet still managing to continue his studies.Disappointments in love affected him greatly and affected his development. In 1890, he went to prison after two attempted rapes; five years later, a third one provoked his internment at the psychiatric ward of Waldau near Berne, where he died in 1930 of stomach cancer.Starting in 1899, Wölfli delved into the depths of creation and elaborated a universe as personal as it was complex, narrating the epic of St. Adolf II. In it, he reinvented his past and projected a utopic future in which St. Adolf II colonizes the universe up to the furthest reaches of space, an inordinate universe that obliged Wölfli to augment the numerical system by multiple units, the highest of which was called anger.To celebrate this advent, drawings, writings, collages and musical staves were put in dialogue in a proliferation of 25,000 pages. The psychiatrist Morgenthaler dedicated a work to him in 1921: A Mentally Ill Man as Artist.Many artists and collectors were interested in his work during his lifetime: Wölfli thus agreed to sell them “Brodkunst,” which he made specifically for the occasion.Rediscovered by Jean Dubuffet in 1945, this monumental work enjoys international recognition. Surely it fascinates through its rare capacity to “defy our way of thinking and fundamentally modify our vision of the world” (D. Baumann).
|Adolf Wölfi: Selvportræt|
The images Wölfli produced were complex, intricate and intense. They worked to the very edges of the page with detailed borders. In a manifestation of Wölfli's "horror vacui", every empty space was filled with two small holes. Wölfli called the shapes around these holes his "birds."His images also incorporated an idiosyncratic musical notation. This notation seemed to start as a purely decorative affair but later developed into real composition which Wölfli would play on a paper trumpet.
"Every Monday morning Wölfli is given a new pencil and two large sheets of unprinted newsprint. The pencil is used up in two days; then he has to make do with the stubs he has saved or with whatever he can beg off someone else. He often writes with pieces only five to seven millimetres long and even with the broken-off points of lead, which he handles deftly, holding them between his fingernails. He carefully collects packing paper and any other paper he can get from the guards and patients in his area; otherwise he would run out of paper before the next Sunday night. At Christmas the house gives him a box of coloured pencils, which lasts him two or three weeks at the most."
Those works created from solitude and from pure and authentic creative impulses – where the worries of competition, acclaim and social promotion do not interfere – are, because of these very facts, more precious than the productions of professionals. After a certain familiarity with these flourishings of an exalted feverishness, lived so fully and so intensely by their authors, we cannot avoid the feeling that in relation to these works, cultural art in its entirety appears to be the game of a futile society, a fallacious parade.
... billeder og andre visuelle udtryk, skabt af bl.a. børn, mentalt forstyrrede og andre uden kunstnerisk skoling. Ligesom surrealisterne og Cobrabevægelsen fandt Jean Dubuffet her kunstens ægte råmateriale, som han stillede op imod den akademisk skolede kunst.
Her et YouTube-indslag der viser en lang række af Adolf Wölflis billeder - medThe term 'outsider art' was coined by art critic Roger Cardinal in 1972 as an English synonym for 'art brut' (French: "raw art" or "rough art"), a label created by French artist Jean Dubuffet to describe art created outside the boundaries of official culture; Dubuffet focused particularly on art by those on the outside of the established art scene, such as psychiatric hospital patients and children.While Dubuffet's term is quite specific, the English term "outsider art" is often applied more broadly, to include certain self-taught or naïve art makers who were never institutionalized. Typically, those labeled as outsider artists have little or no contact with the mainstream art world or art institutions. In many cases, their work is discovered only after their deaths. Often, outsider art illustrates extreme mental states, unconventional ideas, or elaborate fantasy worlds.
"Miserere Mei" af Gregorio Allegri som underlægningsmudik:
Parts of the musical manuscripts of 1913 were analyzed in 1976 by Kjell Keller and Peter Streif and were performed. These are dances - as Wölfli indicates - waltzes, mazurkas, and polkas similar in their melody to folk music.How Wölfli acquired his knowledge of music and its signs and terms is not clear. He heard singing in the village church. Perhaps he himself sang along. There he could see song books from the eighteenth century with six-line staffs (explaining, perhaps, his continuous use of six lines in his musical notations). At festivities he heard dance music, and on military occasions he heard the marches he loved so well.More important than the concrete evaluation of his music notations is Wölfli´s concept of viewing and designing his whole oeuvre as a big musical composition. The basic element underlying his compositions and his whole oeuvre is rhythm. Rhythm pervades not only his music but his poems and prose, and there is also a distinctive rhythmic flow in his handwriting.
Nørgård mødte Wölflis værk ved udstillingen Outsidere på Louisiana i 1979. Efter tredje symfoni (1975) bliver Nørgårds værker mere konfliktfyldte og polaristiske - tænk for eksempel på Seadrift¹s to satser: Being together og Torn apart, hvor de to poler harmoni og konflikt allerede er udtrykt i titlerne - og hvor Nørgård ikke bruger uendelighedsrækken.Wölfli har i sit værk givet udtryk for noget af det, Nørgård i de år søgte efter: Hvordan skabe sammenhæng mellem harmoni og kaos, to yderpoler, der udelukker hinanden? I Wölflis værk afbrydes harmonien - eksempelvis den muntre rejse - af et pludseligt kaos-indbrud - faldet - for derefter at blive genetableret, men dog på en sådan måde, at man aldrig ved, hvornår det næste indbrud sker.(...)Wölflis tekster ligger til grund for flere af Nørgårds korværker, og i operaen Det guddommelige Tivoli har komponisten sat scener fra Wölflis reale og imaginære liv i musik - som en hilsen 'til en bror'.Wölflis person er som et symbol for det polaristiske og det absurde, der også har plads i Nørgårds musik.