|Fredsted the med bacon-smag|
|Nyt design til OB´s fodboldholds trøjer|
|Verdensnyhed: Den første deodorant, der får dig til at dufte af friskbagte Snøfler! En sikker vinder, der med garanti vil få folk til at savle over dig!|
|Lidel markedsfører nu grønne æg|
|Carlsberg har købt Rundetårn for at lave det om til verdens største øldåse.|
En aprilsnar er en lovlig løgn forklædt som en sandhed.
Skannere afslører løgnens skjulesteder
Kriminelle får nu sværere ved at lyve sig fra en tur bag tremmer. Med nye avancerede hjerneskannere kan forskerne skelne løgne fra sandhed. Selv minder og erindringer kan tjekkes - og afsløre et falsk alibi.
I et forsøg fik 18 studerende en bunke spillekort i en konvolut, hvor de skulle huske et kort. Desuden fik de 20 dollars, som de fik lov at beholde hvis de kunne lyve for skanneren. De studerende blev kørt i position i fMR-skanneren, og spillekortene dukked op på en skærm et efter et. På hver kort stod der "Er det dit kort?", hvorefter de studerende skulle trykke på en ja- eller nej-knap. De studerende havde fået besked på at trykke på nej-knappen, når de så deres kort. Efter forsøget måtte alle levere pengene tilbage - forskerne gættede kortet hver gang.
Langleben, an Israeli immigrant with ceaseless energy, had never intended to build a modern-day lie-detection machine. His interest in deception came from work he had done with children suffering from attention deficit disorder (ADD). All the research indicated that children with ADD were terrible liars because they couldn't help but blurt out the truth.Langleben thought this might have to do with their lack of impulse control, and from that, he thought it was possible that lying was essentially harder than telling the truth. One had to have good impulse control to lie, otherwise the truth came out first. That led to developing a way to track a lie as it is formed in the brain using a functional magnetic resonance imaging machine, or fMRI."The key point is that you need to exercise a system that is in charge of regulating and controlling your behavior when you lie more than when you just say the truth," Langleben said. "Three areas of the brain generally become more active during deception: the anterior cingulated cortex, the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex and the parietal cortex."The anterior cingulated cortex is thought to be in charge of monitoring errors. The dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex is thought to control behavior. The parietal cortex processes sensory input. What Langleben and his team were seeing when they looked at the fMRI scans was more blood flow in those parts of the brain, indicating they were working harder.
This image shows average brain regions for 22 subjects during testing. Blue areas represent brain regions more active when telling the truth, red areas, when lying.It is by studying the fMRI pictures that Langleben has come to the conclusion that lying increases blood flow in key areas of the brain. As he sees it, lies aren't created out of thin air. Instead, he believes your brain has to think of the truth and then make a decision, in a sense, to do the opposite. If you are instructed to say "the sky is green," Langleben believes your brain first thinks about the sky's true color, blue, before going with the falsehood. That process shows up on the fMRI scan.
Irving Biederman and Ori Amir at the University of Southern California scanned the brains of 22 improv comedians who had been asked to think up funny and boring captions to go with cartoons of people in various situations.
When the comedians came up with funny punchlines, the scientists saw activity rise in parts of the brain used to make meaningful links between opposing or distinct ideas. Activity in a separate brain region, the ventral striatum, which is involved in reward, also rose and got stronger the funnier the comedians rated their captions.“Conceiving funny ideas involves activation in semantic association regions where remote associations are linked in a meaningful way,” said Amir. “Greater activation in those regions results, on average, in funnier ideas.”In the study, amateur and professional improv comedians, including members of the Groundlings troupe in Los Angeles, had 15 seconds to come up with funny or boring captions for cartoons while having their brains scanned. After writing each caption, they rated how funny it was on a scale from one to four.
One cartoon showed a female relationship counsellor welcoming a married couple into her office. The caption from one of the participants read: “So this is awkward. I am the woman your husband has been cheating with. Either way it will be $200 for the marriage counselling.”
According to the researchers, the brain regions activated during the creation of jokes are rich in opioid receptors, which are part of the brain’s reward system. “In the case of humour appreciation, a surprising burst of activity in those regions may lead to the feeling of mirth,” said Amir.
For a joke to be effective, the researchers discovered that the temporal lobe (located behind the temples) needed to be largely activated and significant activity was also required in the ventral striatum, the brain region which is linked to the reward system. This demonstrates that the development of comical ideas requires the activation of the temporal lobe, where opposing or distinct ideas can be linked in a relevant manner.Furthermore, these temporal areas are rich in opiate receptors, notably the μ receptors which play an important part in the exhilarating effect of these substances. The scientists affirm that the sole activation of these areas produces an effect of pleasure which, in the context of humor, reaches the height of an intense positive feeling, which we call joy.