- System 1: Fast, automatic, frequent, emotional, stereotypic, subconscious
- System 2: Slow, effortful, infrequent, logical, calculating, conscious
Whenever you are conscious, and perhaps even when you are not, multipl computations are going on in your brain, which maintain and update current answers to some key questions: Is anything new going on? Is there a threat? Are things going well? Should my attention be redirected? Is more effort needed for this task? You can think of a cockpit, with a set of dials that indicate the current values of each of these essential variables. The assessments are carried out automatically by System 1, and one of their functions is to determine whether extra effort is required from System 2.One of the dials measures cognitive ease, and its range is between “Easy” and “Strained": Easy is a sign that things are going well - no threats, no major news, no need to redirect attention or mobilize effort. Strained indicates that a problem exists, which will require increased mobilisation of System 2. Conversely, you experience cognitive strain. Cognitive strain is affected by both the current level of effort and the presence of unmet demands. The surprise is that a single dial of cognitive ease is connected to a large network of diverse inputs and outputs.
Og 'cognitive ease' udløser så på sin side så forskellige positive 'fornemmelser': 'velkenthed', 'sandhed', 'velvære', 'ubesværethed':
Processing fluency is the ease with which information is processed in the mind. The ease with which perceptual stimuli are processed is perceptual fluency; the ease with which information can be retrieved from memory is retrieval fluency.Research in psychology has shown that processing fluency influences different kinds of judgments. For instance, perceptual fluency contributes to the experience of familiarity. A stimulus that has been repeatedly presented before will be processed more fluently. Therefore, people sometimes take fluency as an indication that a stimulus is familiar in cases where fluency does not stem from familiarity. Later research observed that high perceptual fluency increases the experience of positive affect. Research with psychophysiological methods corroborated this positive effect on affective experience: easy-to-perceive stimuli were not only judged more positively but increased activation in the zygomaticus major muscle, the so-called "smiling muscle". The notion that processing fluency is inherently positive led to the processing fluency theory of aesthetic pleasure, and it has been used to explain people's negative reactions towards migrants, who appear to be more difficult to process than nonmigrants. (processing fluency explanation of prejudice against migrants)Other studies have shown that when presenting people with a factual statement, manipulations that make the statement easier to mentally process—even totally nonsubstantive changes like writing it in a cleaner font or making it rhyme or simply repeating it—can alter judgment of the truth of the statement, along with evaluation of the intelligence of the statement's author. In one study, people were more likely to judge easy-to-read statements as true. This means that perceived beauty and judged truth have a common underlying experience, namely processing fluency. Indeed, experiments showed that beauty is used as an indication for the correctness of mathematical solutions. This supports the idea that beauty is intuitively seen as truth. Processing fluency may be one of the foundations of intuition.