Sider

onsdag den 11. april 2012

Musik, spejlneuroner og den kreative hjerne

I Påsken var der familiekomsammen. Et af mine børnebørn ligner sin mor i den alder - 17 måneder. Han er helt vild med musik og "danser" til den - eller når nogen synger. Udtrykker helt umiddelbar glæde og nydelse.
   Da min datter var på samme alder husker jeg at hun pludselig med høj klar stemme sang/nynnede Danmarks Radios pausesignal: melodien til "Jeg drømte mig en drøm i nat..."
   Hun havde lært melodien - uden at blive undervist - bare ved at høre den nogle gange i radioen. En melodi som nynnes, produceres af stemmbåndene (som er muskler) og læberne, tungeen og måndhulemuskulaturen i et kompliceret og koordineret samarbejde.
   Der går åbenbart en "vej" i hjernen - fra øret, over hjernens hørecenter og over til de muskler som producerer "sangen" så den lyder præcis som den melodi øret har hørt. Og når den vej er banet, så udløser det lyst- og glæde-hormoner i hjernens belønningssystem: endorfiner, dopamin, etc. - hver gang melodien høres og synges.

Musik, dans, sang, rytme - udgør en helhed som. når vi oplever det, sætter sig i kroppens spejlneuroner som en slags muskelhukommelse. Det vil sige: Når vi hører musikken, så aktiveres de dele af det motoriske system som også er aktivt når vi selv synger, spiller, nynner, trommer, danser - nemlig de spejlneuroner som sidder i præmotorcortex og i andre tilsvarnede netværk i hjernen, fx det der har med hørelse og stemme at gøre.
   Det bemærkelsesværdig er at denne spejling sker så nemt - og gør os så glade - som mit barnebarn så tydeligt giver udtryk for.

Det skriver bloggeren Suzie Heumann om i Huffington Post om:
I went to see Bonnie Raitt and Taj Mahal the other night in Oakland California. The setting was beautiful and the crowd was thrilled with the music and the vibes. Late in the program, as they sang a lusty, bluesy song together Taj began to wave his hands in the air and he encouraged us all to do it with him. Everyone began waving their hands and arms in the air and we all fell into a side-to-side sweeping, wave of ecstatic dancing! We were like one big sea anemone, an organism, waving in a sea of music and bodies and bliss.
   Why is it so easy to do this?
    Music is a universal language. It probably preceded speech. When you listen to or create music many specific areas of your brain light up. The thinking areas, the sensory areas, the memory areas, the motor areas, and even the anticipation and predictive areas of your brain light up during the silence between songs. (...)
    One of the other structures that lights up are the mirror neurons you have throughout your brain/body system. These are widely distributed in the brain but occur in the parietal lobe specifically to help you notice and track what your friends are doing. The same mirror neurons fire when you both follow where someone else is looking, with your attention, and when you are doing the looking all by yourself. They are, for all purposes, the same thing to your brain - either doing the looking or watching someone else as they do the looking. Non-duality - "I am both the observer and the observed"! Consequently, we all did what Taj told us to do, once we had looked to our right and left to see if our friends were doing it too!
    Mirror neurons help keep you in line with your tribe and keep you connected to others. They help regulate your bodily functions, social behavior, what you do and say to another, how you interpret another's actions and they encourage you to act and feel the way the majority is acting and feeling at any given moment. Mirror neurons are what make you social. They help 'teach' you to be a part of your tribe. You, and everybody else in your tribe, keep an 'eye' out, so to speak, for unity, divisiveness, action, calm, eating, yawning, laughing, and a myriad of other social signals that make you either a part of or separate from the rest. Both listening to and playing music draws on your attention, your anticipation and your mirror neurons too.
På Facebook modtog jeg et link til en YouTube-video som er fascinerende og gribende, og som demonstrerer at forskellige netværk har forbindelser og er aktive hvis man bare trykker på den rigtige "kontakt".
   Talecentret, den episodiske hukommelse, og de muskler du bruger til at synge og spille med, er neurologisk forbundet sådan at når du hører en melodi som din krop kan huske via premotorcortex, så åbner det en række neuro-forbindelser mellem forskellige centrer så de aktiveres og samarbejder. 
   Se bare her:


"Neurons that wire together fire together" (eller omvendt), er et af den moderne neurovidenskabs slagord, og videoen viser jo at musik er bredt forbundet til personligheden, erindringen, bevidstheden og kroppen - også når omgivelserne ellers helt har opgivet kontakt.
One of the key factors in the human brain’s ability to change via neuroplasticity is that neurons form interconnections based on simultaneous firing over a period of time. According to Norman Doidge, author of The Brain That Changes Itself, this theory was first proposed by none other than Sigmund Freud, but was articulated in more detail by Canadian psychologist Donald Hebb. Doidge attributes this neat summary to neuroscientist Carla Shatz: Neurons that fire together wire together. 
 http://www.neurosciencemarketing.com/blog/articles/neurons-fire-together.htm

Ingen kommentarer:

Tilføj en kommentar